Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery

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This chapter contains images and videos of ear examination. The images are generally linked to videos that can be played by clicking on the images. The outline is as follows:  

Unit One: Normal Anatomy - The normal external ear canal, middle ear, and Eustachian tube anatomy are reviewed within this section.

  1. The External Ear
  2. The Middle Ear
  3. The Tympanic Membrane
  4. The Eustachian Tube

Unit Two: Audiology - Examples of audiograms and typmpanograms.

  1. Normal Audiogram
  2. Audiogram with conductive hearing loss
  3. Audiogram with Mixed Loss
  4. Normal Tympanogram
  5. Flat Tympanogram
  6. Negative Pressure Tympanogram

Unit Three: External Ear Disease Diagnosis - Four conditions of the external ear including external otitis, canal and tympanic membrane trauma, and impacted cerumen are covered in this section. External otitis pertains to all the inflammatory processes that change the continuity of the epithelium of the external auditory canal, meatus, and tympanic membrane skin. There are at least four types of external otitis: Bacterial, Fungal, Eczematoid and Viral.

  1. External otitis: Bacterial
  2. External otitis: Fungal
  3. External otitis: Eczematoid
  4. Herpes Zoster Oticus: Viral
  5. Canal Trauma
  6. Impacted Cerumen

Unit Four: Middle Ear Disease Diagnosis - Middle ear diseases are usually seen in the changes of the tympanic membrane, or through the transparent tympanic membrane. The commonest conditions are shown here.

  1. Bullous Myringitis
  2. Acute otitis media
  3. Serous Otitis Acute and Chronic
  4. Tympanosclerosis
  5. Aural Polyp
  6. Retraction Pocket
  7. Adhesive Otitis
  8. Cholesteatoma
  9. Barotrauma

Unit Five: Tympanic Membrane Perforations - A perforation is a hole in the tympanic membrane that is visible through the otoscope. This section contains information on acute traumatic, central, marginal, attic, and total perforations along with information on the monomeric tympanic membrane.

  1. Acute Traumatic
  2. Central Perforation
  3. Marginal Perforation
  4. Total Perforation
  5. Monomere

Unit Six: Tumor Diagnosis - A discussion of paragangliomas and osteomas follows.

  1. Paragangliomas
  2. Osteoma

Unit Seven: Myringotomy and Post Ops - This shows a myringotomy with a tube insertion and common post operative conditions.

  1. Myringotomy
  2. Bobbin Tubes
  3. T Tubes
  4. Granulation Tissue with Tube
  5. Cartilage Graft
  6. Mastoidectomy

Unit Eight: Foreign bodies - An assortment of common objects found in ear canals.

  1. Candle Wax
  2. Popcorn Kernel
  3. Q-tip Cotton


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